The worldwide association of H. erectus with elephants is well documented and so is the preference of humans for fat as per source of energy. erectus durante the Levant was dependent on both elephants and fat for his survival. The disappearance of elephants from the Levant some 400 kyr spillo coincides with the appearance of verso new and innovative local cultural complex – the Levantine Acheulo-Yabrudian and, as is evident from teeth recently found sopra the Acheulo-Yabrudian 400-200 kyr site of Qesem Cave, the replacement of H. erectus by per new hominin. We employ per bio-energetic model preciso present per hypothesis that the disappearance of the elephants, which created verso need esatto hunt an increased number of smaller and faster animals while maintaining an adequate fat content sopra the diet, was the evolutionary drive behind the emergence of the lighter, more sciolto, and cognitively breviligne hominins. Qesem Cave thus provides verso rare opportunity esatto study the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of our post-erectus ancestors, the fat hunters.
Man the Fat Hunter: The Demise of Homo erectus and the Emergence of a New Hominin Lineage in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 400 kyr) Levant
Citation: Ben-Dor M, Gopher Verso, Hershkovitz I, Barkai R (2011) Man the Fat Hunter: The Demise of Homo erectus and the Emergence of verso New Hominin Lineage sopra the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 400 kyr) Levant. PLoS ONE 6(12): e28689.
Copyright: © 2011 Ben-Dor et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction per any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: The Qesem Cave research project is supported by the following granting agencies: The Israel science Foundation (Grants ; ; ) The Dan Daviv Foundation (Grant datingranking.net/it/black-singles-review/ 0474) The Thyssen foundation (Grant R 17386) The Wenner-Gren Foundation The Leakey foundation and the CARE Archaeologucal Foundation. The funders had giammai role in study design, tempo collection and analysis, decision sicuro publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
It is our contention that two distinct elements combined mediante the Levant preciso propel the evolutionary process of replacing H. erectus by per new hominin lineage (, As the classification of varieties of the genus Homo is problematic, we refrain per this paper from any taxonomic designations that would indicate species or subspecies affiliation for the hominins of Qesem Cave. The Qesem Cave hominin, based on the analysis of teeth shares dental characteristics with the Skhul/Qafzeh Middle Paleolithic populations and to some extent also with Neandertals). One was the disappearance of the elephant (Elephas antiquus) – an ideal food-package mediante terms of fat and protein content throughout the year – which was until then verso main calorie contributor sicuro the diet of the H. erectus sopra the Levant. The second was the continuous necessity of H. erectus sicuro consume animal fat as part of their diet, especially when taking into account their large brains . The need to consume animal fat is the result of the physiological ceiling on the consumption of protein and plant foods. The obligatory nature of animal fat consumption turned the alleged large prey preference , of H. erectus into per large prey dependence. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of the hominins would have increased when very large animals such as the elephant had diminished and verso larger number of smaller, faster animals had puro be captured sicuro provide the same amount of calories and required fat. This fitness pressure would have been considerably more acute during the dry seasons that prevail con the Levant. Such an eventuality, we suggest, led sicuro the evolution of a better equipped species, per comparison with H. erectus, that also had per lighter body , a greater lower limb onesto weight ratio (:194), and improved levels of knowledge, skill, and coordination (:63) allowing it to better handle the hunting of an increased number of smaller animals and most probably also develop a new supporting accommodant organization.